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Title: Beneficiation and Characterization of a Bentonite from Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria
Authors: Olugbenga, Adeola Grace
Garba, M. U.
Soboyejo, W.
Chukwu, G.
Keywords: Bentonite; Cations; Swelling; Activation.
Issue Date: Mar-2013
Publisher: International Journal of Science and engineering Investigations
Abstract: The characterization of a tropical bentonite (Niger delta bentonite) has been performed by different techniques for drilling application. While the chemical elements was determine qualitatively by measuring characteristic radiation of the X-ray fluorescence, the powder diffraction XRD of a random powder mount was used to obtain the definitive clay and nonclay components. The SEM was used to determine the particle size and geometry. The optimum sodium carbonate addition was observed between 2 and 3% which balance the exchangeable/surface cation such that a ratio of 56:23:21 for Na:Ca:Mg indicated a promising rheological property if the clay is applied for viscosity builing in any industrial application. The mixed monovalent divalent cation saturation in its crude state tends toward a better swelling index desired for drilling application with sodium carbonate activation. The clay mineral was found to be chemically stable, having a balanced surface charge distribution and the particles are highly colloidal with unique atomic structure as of a typical bentonite. The clay is a calcium bentonite and the chemical analysis reflects that an economical peptizing route is achievable.
Description: Bentonites are predominantly clay minerals of smectite group. It is ubiquitous in low concentration in soil formed by sedimentation in natural water bodies and airborne dust. Bentonites can be classified as sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and aluminium (Al) depending on the dominant element in each. Of these elements, Na and Ca bentonites possess some physical properties, which make them valuable to a great variety of industries. Their importance is not only limited to rheological and absorbent properties, but also the cation exchange capacity, plasticity, high bonding strength, and swelling capacity. These properties are attributed to the clay mineralogy, the nature of exchangeable ion and its ion exchange capacity [1, 2].
Appears in Collections:Chemical Engineering

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